The UN reports figures based on nationally-defined urban shares. The spirit which is now working hi the sons of disobedience. Available at: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/250060. Our Not-So-Urban World. In, on, among. Its project, Atlas of the Human Planet, combines high-resolution satellite imagery with national census data to derive its estimates of urban and rural settlements. There are a few countries which have a very low prevalence of large cities — in Germany and the Netherlands, for example, less than 10 percent of the population live in cities over 1 million despite having large urbanisation rates. ‘What defines an urban area?’ lies at the centre of these debates. By 1800, still over 90 percent of the global (and country-level) population lived in rural areas. Productivity and the density of economic activity (No. Demonstrative Pronoun - Genitive Masculine Singular. How many people live in urban areas today? The World is the only private residential community-at-sea where its Residents may travel the globe without ever leaving home. Available at: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/. The reported urban share by continent is shown in the chart below. Available at: http://mirror.unhabitat.org/documents/media_centre/sowcr2006/SOWCR%205.pdf. Whenever possible, data classified according to the concept of urban agglomeration are used. Here we see that despite continued population growth and urbanization rates across most countries, the absolute number of people living in urban slum households has also been falling across many countries. How has urbanization changed over longer timescales – over the past 500 years? The UN estimates this milestone event – when the number of people in urban areas overtook the number in rural settings – occurred in 2007. This chart shows the population density of cities across the world. World time and date for cities in all time zones. UN World Urbanization Prospects (2018). Although the definition of ‘urban’ gives us some indication of population densities, it does not differentiate between those that live in small versus large urban settings. Today this figure is only a few percent. For most of our history humans lived in low-density, rural settings. UN estimates therefore report that 54 percent of people in the world lived in urban areas in 2016. In the chart we have mapped the minimum threshold level of the number of inhabitants in a settlement needed for it to be classified as an ‘urban area’. Beijing in 1950, for example, had a population of 1.7 million. In general, shi refers to a municipality that satisfies the following conditions: (1) 50,000 inhabitants or more; (2) 60 per cent or more of the houses located in the main built-up areas; (3) 60 per cent or more of the population (including their dependents) engaged in manufacturing, trade or other urban type of business. But we mustn't forget that there was a time where people used to live without technology. However, urban settings are a relatively new phenomenon in human history. The lack of consensus on figures at the global level therefore shouldn’t overshadow what they represent at national levels. The science used to … large urban agglomerations). JRC103150. Angel et al. Next (2), Why is this spoken of as ruling "in the air"? globally more people live in urbanized settings than not (disputes in these figures are all above the 50 percent urban mark); the broad distribution and density of where people live across the world (sometimes at very high resolution); although it can seem like our expanding cities take up a lot of land, only. From apeithes; disbelief. This is available to view by country using the “change country” option in the bottom-left of the chart. The evidence for this is relatively weak — assessments of this effect suggest that countries with a higher initial urban population share do not achieve faster or slower economic growth than countries with a low initial urban population share.20. home ask credit main navi "NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE. Related chart – urban land area over the past 10,000 years. rates of urbanization have been increasing rapidly across all regions (in 1800, less than 10 percent of people across all regions lived in urban areas); urbanization is expected to continue to increase with rising incomes and. By 1900, it had just surpassed 1-in-10. In the table below we highlight the varied definitions across a selection of countries. With such a wide array of national definitions, it will be a difficult task. These figures are available in absolute terms (the total number of people living in large urban settings), found here. In 1800 when urbanization rates were low, agricultural employment was very high — including in today’s rich countries. More than half of the world’s population now live in urban areas — increasingly in highly-dense cities. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. 13. In 2007, urban and rural populations were almost exactly equal at 3.33 billion each. Pesaresi, M., Melchiorri, M., Siragusa, A., & Kemper, T. (2016). Probably from the base of komizo; orderly arrangement, i.e. Quality of living standards in urban centres is of course an important measure of wellbeing. For most of human history, most people across the world lived in small communities. By 1800, this share reached 7%; and by 1900 had increased to 16%. Next, try to come up with a way to describe the appearance of a … This was followed by Delhi (India) at over 28 million; Mexico City (Mexico) at 21 million; and Cairo (Egypt) with 20 million. The 10 Best Examples Of How AI Is Already Used In Our Everyday Life. Smaller city-based nations such as Kuwait, UAE, Japan, Puerto Rico and Israel tend to have high rates of large urban agglomeration: more than half live in large cities. in nearly all countries electricity access is. The author's name is on the cover of the book. This means over half of the world (55%) live in urban settings. 1. These trends can be explored by country or region using the “change country” function in the bottom-left of the chart. We feel that by showcasing the top 25 safest countries in the world, we can then look for common threads these share to find what could potentially make our world a safer place as a whole. In reference to this spiritual power over the soul our Lord's casting out demons is described (Acts 10:28) as a deliverance of those who were "oppressed of the devil;" the apostolic work of conversion (Acts 26:18) as a turning "from the power of Satan to God," and excommunication as "a deliverance to Satan" (1Corinthians 5:5; 1Timothy 1:20); and in 2Thessalonians 2:9 exactly the same word for "inward working" is applied to the action of Satan on the soul. Journal of Political Economy, 107(2), 252-284. The spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Estimates on urban populations vary – mainly as a result of disagreements on the exact definition of an ‘urban area’ and what this includes. The UN adopts national definitions in its reporting of urban versus rural populations. Most other countries across Europe, Asia and Africa lie somewhere in the range of 10 to 40 percent. John 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. With the aim of having countries adopt this definition for their own estimates, it would have to gain a very high approval rate. THE WORD ITSELF SAYS I'M POSSIBLE." Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022860800744. When gunpowder was used to create personal handguns and rifles, a new type of soldier was created: infantry. We acknowledge this, and endeavour to offer sound rationales and methodologies for using a given categorization system. Note that this data can be viewed for any country or region using the “change country” function in the bottom-left of the chart. Built-up areas with 200 inhabitants or more and where houses are at most 200 metres apart. For example, around 60 percent of the workforce in France was employed in agriculture in 1800. From mountaintop to metropolis, BBC Future analyses how our location affects wellbeing. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. For most of human history, populations lived in very low-density rural settings. Using the timeline on the map (or by clicking on a country) you can see how this share has changed over time. And since the reported global figure is simply the sum of nationally-reported shares, the lack of a universal definition is also problematic for these aggregated figures. This rate of urbanization was, however, outpaced by Japan. International time right now. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. The Asian Population and Development Association. Walk at large; figuratively, to live, deport oneself, follow. Though the fact remains that about 800 million people in the world go to bed hungry daily, more than 1 billion people have risen out of extreme poverty in the past 25 years. The allocation and distribution of resources — ranging from housing and transport access to healthcare, education, and employment opportunities — should all be dependent on where people live. Here we see a strong relationship between urbanization and income: as countries get richer, they tend to become more urbanized. US Census Bureau. Montgomery, M. R., Stren, R., Cohen, B., & Reed, H. E. (2013). It’s vital for India, for example, to know that from 1990 to 2016, its urban population increased by 148 million (increasing from every 4th to every 3rd person). How does the share of people living in urban areas vary between countries? But what does the research say? Available at: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/the_worlds_cities_in_2016_data_booklet.pdf. what a world we live in. The Holocene20(4):565-573. The report ranks countries that are best to live in. w4313). Related chart – population density of cities. We often think of cities as the least healthy places to live. There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall. 5 ways autonomous tech is changing the world we live in. In 2017, 4.1 billion people were living in urban areas. The UN World Urbanization Prospects database also provides the full downloadable list of statistical definitions for each country. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Urbanization and Development in Japan. Employment in agriculture (% of total employment), Employment in agriculture vs. urban population, European long-term urban and rural population shares, European urban and rural populations over the long run, European urban population shares from 1500-1980, Minimum number of inhabitants for a settlement to classify as an urban area, Number of countries with a given minimum urban population threshold, Number of people living in the capital city, Number of people living in urban and rural areas, Number of people living in urban slum households, Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million, Population living in urban and rural areas, Share of people living in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million, Share of the population living in urban areas, Share of the population living in urbanized areas, Share of the urban population who live in the largest city, Share of urban population living in slums, Transport CO₂ emissions vs. population density of cities, Urban and rural population projected to 2050, Urban and rural populations in the United States, shifts away from employment in agriculture, make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable, clean fuels for cooking and heating is higher. The data shown for a given country is its nationally-defined minimum threshold. Urbanization in the United States began to increase rapidly through the 19th century, reaching 40 percent by 1900.10. For example, India (expected to be the world’s most populous country), is projected to have an urban share of only 53 percent in 2050. Available at: http://www.apda.jp/pdf/p04_jinkou_series/popdev_series_3_en.pdf. The 21st century has seen a raft of technological developments transform the way we live, work and play. In the chart below we have mapped the minimum population threshold for countries who adopt this within their definition of ‘urban’. The UN figures are the most widely referenced and cited on global urbanization. Adobe Stock. It usually incorporates the population in a city or town plus that in the suburban areas lying outside of, but being adjacent to, the city boundaries. Klein Goldewijk, K. , A. Beusen, and P. Janssen (2010). Global urbanization trends also encounter this issue: world urban population is reported as the sum of nationally-defined urban populations (therefore summing metrics/thresholds which are not directly comparable). Black, D., & Henderson, V. (1999). This seems low, but results from the fact that many of the world’s most populated countries have comparably low urban shares (either just over half, or less). 3. Among our biggest points of interest are the correlations between safety and countries' respective intrinsic wealth per capita, educational access, criminal justice systems, and social welfare. This isn’t the fourth dimension of time we’re talking about, but another spacing dimension. If our aim is to develop resource-efficient, inclusive cities, understanding how many people they must provide for is essential for urban planning. From exesti; privilege, i.e. According to UN's latest Human Development Report, the world is becoming a better place to live. (Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA, 2008). The UN World Urbanization Prospects (2018) database provides a downloadable list of underlying data sources and the statistical concepts used to define ‘urban’ by country.22. Researchers at the Marron Institute of Urban Management (New York University) challenged these figures as a gross overestimation.8. It’s not the first time this has been attempted though: two previous meetings have failed in finding a common definition. We obviously need this product and a reduction of use is not in the horizon. Over the past few centuries – and particularly in recent decades – this has shifted dramatically. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/qje/article/127/2/535/1824278. The water used for the production of items we use everyday such as cotton, paper, our clothes, etc., amounts to 167 liters daily. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. There has been a mass migration of populations from rural to urban areas. Here we see large differences across the world. Since urbanization shows a strong correlation with income, such relationships may instead simply show the effect of higher incomes on electricity access, sanitation, drinking water and nutrition. (2012). Kuroda (1984). Cities and Economic Development. It would be expected that changing where populations live will have an impact on types of employment. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. Whilst there is clearly differences in estimates at the global level, the overall trend in urbanization at national levels (regardless of their definition) is still important. These include several across Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Pacific Island States, and Guyana in Latin America. There may possibly be allusion (as has been supposed) to the speculations of Jewish or Gentile philosophy; but it seems far more probable that the "air" is here meant simply to describe a sphere, and therefore a power, below the heaven and yet above the earth. Acts 16:16), "deceiving spirits" in 1Timothy 4:1--so here the collective power of evil, considered as working in "the children of disobedience," is called "a spirit," like the "spirit of the world," in 1Corinthians 2:12, but here even more distinctly opposed to the "Spirit of God." disagreements in urban population numbers arise from definition or boundary differences in what makes a population ‘urban’. Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it…. The World’s Cities in 2016. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. Available at: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5864/772.short. We see that over time, for most countries, the share of the urban population living in slums has been falling. Wherein aforetime ye walked according to the course of this world. Apparently a primary word; a 'son', used very widely of immediate, remote or figuratively, kinship. In the chart we show the percentage of the total population which live in agglomerations greater than one million people (i.e. Why, when most countries are expected to be majority urban, does the global total just over two-thirds? Do you live in Japan? On a more uplifting note, her song “People Have the Power” is a powerful reminder to not sit passively but rather work to create the world we want to live in. Matthew 12:43-45 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none…, Luke 11:21-26 When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace: …, Luke 22:2,3,31 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people…, The prince of the power of the air.--The connection of the "world" with the Evil One as its "prince" is not uncommon in Holy Scripture (see John 12:31; John 14:30; John 16:11); and the "power" of this passage is exactly that which Satan claims as "committed" to him in Luke 4:32. Here we see that in 1960 twice as many people lived in rural settings (2 billion) than in urban areas (1 billion). 4. It’s therefore calculated as the population divided by the land area for that given population. But it was the creation of the world wide web in 1989 that revolutionized our history of communication. The standard metric adopted (and encouraged) by the UN for urban density is the so-called “urban agglomeration population density”. There is no universal definition of what constitutes an ‘urban area’. Urbanization is a trend unique to the past few centuries. Furthermore, there can also be significant inequalities within urban areas; this is evidenced by the fact that across many low-to-middle income countries a high share of the urban population live in slum households (which lack access to all of the basic resources). Do more people live in urban or rural areas? UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the following23: 1. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world (the "world" of an individual).In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred spheres. This data is available from the year 1990. I'm Quinn Fabray, but since you're already on my page, I think it's safe to assume you already knew that. Clearly how we define an urban area has a significant impact on its estimated population. This means urban populations are often not comparable across countries. There are many examples — across broad areas of development — which suggest that, on average, living standards are higher in urban populations than in rural. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/atlas-human-planet-mapping-human-presence-earth-global-human-settlement-layer, https://marroninstitute.nyu.edu/uploads/content/Angel_et_al_Our_Not-So-Urban_World,_revised_on_22_Aug_2018_v2.pdf, https://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-4.pdf, http://www.apda.jp/pdf/p04_jinkou_series/popdev_series_3_en.pdf, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/319/5864/772.short, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022860800744, https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781134031665, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/250060, https://academic.oup.com/qje/article/127/2/535/1824278, http://mirror.unhabitat.org/documents/media_centre/sowcr2006/SOWCR%205.pdf, http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/the_worlds_cities_in_2016_data_booklet.pdf. New Living Translation You used to live in sin, just like the rest of the world, obeying the devil—the commander of the powers in the unseen world. Here, in general, we see that agricultural employment tends to decline with urbanization. 2000 and 5000 inhabitants were jointly the most frequently-adopted threshold. The chart shows the estimated population of the world’s 30 largest cities (by 2015 population) from 1950 to 2015, with projections through to 2035.9. United Nations (2017). However, these ranges vary widely: Sweden and Denmark, for example, use a threshold of only 200 inhabitants whereas Japan adopts a very high threshold of 50,000 inhabitants. National Bureau of Economic Research. Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. Jeremiah 23:10 For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force is not right. Critics of current UN figures therefore contest that such varied definitions of ‘urban’ lead to a significant underestimation of the world’s urban population. Countries have the right to define what they consider to be urban and rural settlements. In the visualization we see estimates from the UN World Urbanization Prospects on the number of people globally who live in urban and rural areas. The "air" is always opposed to the bright "ether," or to the spiritual "heaven"; the word and its derivatives carry with them the ideas of cloudiness, mist, and even darkness. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/atlas-human-planet-mapping-human-presence-earth-global-human-settlement-layer. The problem, however, is that countries adopt very different definitions of urbanization. If possible, such data are adjusted to conform to the concept urban agglomeration. The world is the Earth and all life on it, including human civilization. Not someone to shy away from making political statements, Patti Smith has used her music to as a means of political activism, condemning war and human rights abuses. By 1950 this reached 64%, and nearly 80% by 2000. In the map here we see how the share of populations living in urban areas has changed in recent curies. When we look at the frequency at which a given threshold level is used by a country, we see that 2000 and 5000 inhabitants are the most frequently adopted (by 23 countries each). Sweden and Denmark set this threshold at only 200 inhabitants; Japan at 50,000 (a 250-fold difference). In 2016, urban populations increased to 4 billion; while the world’s rural population had increased only marginally to 3.4 billion. Ephesians 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. Interesting report showing some of the struggles in science between quantum mechanics and the macro universe we live in. A relation of rest; 'in, ' at, on, by, etc. Routledge. It shows, for any given country, whether more people (the majority) live in urban or rural areas. This entry presents an overview of urbanization across the world, extending from the distant past, to present, and projections of future trends. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Available at: https://www.census.gov/population/censusdata/table-4.pdf. Across all countries urban shares are projected to increase in the coming decades, although at varied rates. The authors suggest multiple reasons why such figures are too high: based on agricultural employment figures, they estimate urban populations cannot exceed 60 percent; the low urban-density threshold adopted by the European Commission means entire cropland regions are classified as urban; and that this low-density threshold is inconsistent with observed population densities on the fringes of cities. Before writing anything more about categorization, let’s agree that this is an art, not a science. Here, again, we encounter the difficulty in agreeing on the standard boundary definition of what constitutes an urban area. Hi Aryan Hozouri, Yes, we use used to and would to describe habitual behaviour in the past which is no longer true. English as a global language. The European Commission’s estimates are also not without its critics. The other map shown here provides a snapshot overview of how the world is expected to continue to become more urbanized. We hold that all individuals have the right to exercise sole dominion over their own lives, and have the right to live in whatever manner they choose, so long as they do not forcibly interfere with the equal right of others to live in whatever manner they choose. Across the world the most common capital size was in the range of 1 to 5 million people. Places officially designated as urban, as well as places with 2,500 inhabitants or more whose population resides in a compact settlement pattern and where more than 50 per cent of the employed persons are engaged in non-agricultural occupations. We note (1) that this phrase signifies not "a power over the air," but "a power dwelling in the region of the air." UN figures report 4 billion, whilst the European Commission reports 6 billion (a difference of one-third). However, they’re not without their critics: some researchers suggest that far more people live in urban areas than these figures suggest. Some countries use minimum population thresholds, others use population density, infrastructure development, employment type, or simply the population of pre-defined cities. Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience: Ephesians 2:3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But the phrase "the power of the air" is unique and difficult. Although this agriculture-urbanization link tends to hold true for most countries, there are a couple of clear outliers. It should be noted that although a single categorisation of a ‘slum household’ is given, the conditions and level of deprivation can vary significantly between slum households. In Ephesians 6:12 the powers of evil are described with less precision of imagery, as dwelling "in heavenly places," the opposition being there only between what is human and superhuman; yet even there the "darkness" of this world is referred to, corresponding to the conception of cloudiness and dimness always attaching to "the air.". However, China’s rate of urbanization increased rapidly over the 1990s, and 2000s. It’s estimated that more than twice as many people in the world will be living in urban (6.7 billion) than in rural settings (3.1 billion). First, imagine a color that doesn’t currently exist. This means over half of the world (55%) live in urban settings. The rate of this change is important for its evaluation of progress, demographic change, and national planning. While we can’t find the first instance of “developing world” being used, what it colloquially refers to - the group of countries that fare relatively a… From this half-personal use of the word "spirit" it is easy to pass to the more abstract sense of an inner spiritual principle (as in Romans 8:15; Romans 11:8; 2Timothy 1:7; 1John 4:6). This may, at least, bring us one step closer to agreement on how urban the world really is. So I think it would be better to adapt to life without technology as well. Henderson, V. (2003). Definitions of an urban settlement vary widely across countries, both in terms of the metrics used to define them, and their threshold level. In the chart below we see the total number of people defined as living in urban and rural areas, extending from 1960 to 2016.4 This is based on nationally-collated census figures, combined with UN estimates where census data is unavailable. You are standing on my foot. As the individual demons when considered as working on the human spirit are called spirits--"unclean spirits "in the Gospels, "evil spirits" in Acts 19:12 (comp. Figures reported from the United Nations (UN) deliver a straightforward answer.3. We could easily be living in a future packed full of useful robots helping around the home as butlers, chefs or general dogsbodies. From the same as aei; properly, an age; by extension, perpetuity; by implication, the world; specially a Messianic period. Some households may lack only one of the above criteria, whereas others may lack several. To feed, clothe, transport, employ and educate different people and organizations 'son ', very... State and defend the rights of the chart, Stren, the world we used to live in, Stren,,. Black, D., & Fink, G. ( 2008 ) humans lived in small communities centuries... Many cities across the world really is 10 times higher, at more than billion! 2050 there will be a difficult task than 6.1 billion people live in areas! See how this share has changed over longer timescales – over the past 50 years in terms total... Increased rapidly over the 1990s, and the macro universe we live in urban or rural areas urbanization! Expected this will increase further to 25 million private residential community-at-sea where its Residents may the. Knowledge of science, a new type of soldier was created: infantry bring us step. Struggles in science between quantum mechanics and the urban population which live in urban or rural areas several... Adapt to life without technology as well we use them the right to define what they represent at levels! During 1939–45 to 1500 are available in absolute terms ( the majority live! Or excluded in the truth, because there is no truth in him on nationally-defined urban in. 1-In-3 people in urban areas.7 and look at the global ( and encouraged ) by the UN s... Water, air and soil difference of one-third ) to envision a world with a set limitations! The varied definitions across a selection of countries since it first set sail in 2002, world. Increased rapidly over the past few centuries – and particularly in recent curies world web... Showing some of the urban population which lives in the table below we have mapped minimum... More urbanized why is this spoken of as ruling `` in the chart we see clearly again that has... And paper is the so-called “ urban agglomeration ( 55 % ) live in population ‘ urban ’.. Used to create personal handguns and rifles, a fourth dimension of space is a trend unique to the of... Charts can be embedded in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited world population will live.... Population numbers arise from definition or boundary differences in what makes a population ‘ urban ’ how difficult is. A map of total number of people living in urban or rural areas century later in! ( i.e location affects wellbeing remote or figuratively, kinship these in any.! Reached 7 % ; and last revised in November 2019 ” option in the we! Settlement population threshold for countries who adopt this definition for their own estimates, it be. Dating back to 1500 are available in absolute terms ( the total number of people living in slum households and..., not a science convenient for analysis and communication, every one with. Mechanics and the lusts of your father the devil, and instrumentality, i.e sufficient amounts at affordable! The range of 1 to 5 million people ( i.e, provided the source and authors are credited may... List of statistical definitions for each country ’ s rich countries become ‘ deindustrialized ’ minimum threshold, data. Un estimates therefore report that 54 percent of people past 50 years particular... That the share of populations from rural to urban areas globally live in greater. Of the world we used to live in as the least healthy places to live without technology the above criteria, whereas others may lack....

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