Personality & Soc. Still, that very same message—the ubiquity of implicit bias—can lend an added grimness to Eberhardt's work. Some of your best talent could leave if their concerns are not systematically addressed. View Jennifer Ristoff’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Jennifer Eberhardt: [00:20:34] So that's why — you know when we first started this study, a lot of neuroscientists thought we wouldn't find anything because they felt like face is a face and the brain just evolved to recognize faces because faces are important to us. By now, you understand that the more you can engage and incorporate System 2 thinking into your processes, the less likely implicit bias is to interfere. Mailing Address: 875 Perimeter Drive MS 2535 Moscow, ID 83844-2535 "She is saying things that make people uncomfortable, but she has the evidence to back up the reality of what's she's describing," says Susan Fiske, a Princeton social psychologist who calls Eberhardt's work simultaneously original, provocative and rigorous. To comment, email editor@clomedia.com. Eberhardt guesses she might never have even gone to college if they'd stayed in Lee-Harvard. We want to be able to distinguish friend from foe. "I always knew I wasn't going to be the person who made a difference because I had the loudest voice. Jennifer Eberhardt, 2019. In one experiment, subjects were subliminally shown black or white faces, then asked to identify a blurry image as it came into focus over 41 frames. He includes himself in that group. "He said, 'I am really happy you do the work you do, but I don't know how you do it—it's so depressing,'" she recalls. Penguin. But before she could quiz him for the connection, the 5-year-old added, "I hope he doesn't rob the plane.". When Eberhardt asked the students to discuss the unexpected result, silence fell over the normally chatty class. Key to the training's appeal, Fridell says, is that it treats bias as a common human condition to be recognized and managed, rather than as a deeply offensive personal sin, an approach that makes cops less defensive. "You are still in control of your behavior.". While most people believe decision-making is a rational process, research has proven that implicit bias can lead you to certain conclusions without your conscious awareness. These biases, she admits, are natural but must be suppressed for the greater good of the inevitable — always inevitable — multiracial society. "Because the worlds were so different, I just thought about race a lot and I thought about inequality a lot," she says. . There were better facilities, better teachers and real expectations. For instance, the findings about implicit race bias indicate that individuals will perceive as more ... decision-procedure in order to avoid potential biases - or new ways of checking each other’s decisions and holding each other accountable. "People would choose their friends based on how smart they were," she says. This paper presents a systematic analysis of officer body-worn camera footage, using computational linguistic techniques to automatically measure the … Police officers speak significantly less respectfully to black than to white community members in everyday traffic stops, even after controlling for officer race, infraction severity, stop location, and stop outcome. ), At Beachwood, by comparison, college seemed inevitable. The experience inspired her dissertation, which examined the effects of bias on the fundamental attribution error, and foreshadowed the dominant theme of her career—the hidden ways in which race shapes outcomes, even in people who deny it influences them. The subjects were then asked to identify blurry images as they came into focus frame by frame. It means that bias-inviting procedures should be eliminated, such as the routine traffic stop, foot … This is a guy who has a life sentence.". Thanks as well to Diana Johnson of Sorenson Media and Kymberlee Weil of FlashForward. It seeps into everything, a point Eberhardt sometimes uses personal anecdote to reinforce. The makeup of the facial prompts had little effect on how quickly people recognized mundane items like staplers or books. As much as you may not want to acknowledge it, you are not as rational as you believe yourself to be. Instead, she heard gasps, the loudest after she described an experiment that showed how quickly people link black faces … By getting people to stop and reflect on what they are about to do, you would be activating the conscious part of the brain, which is where more rational-based decision-making takes place. Learning leaders should also understand that self-awareness, as it relates to implicit bias, is more than consciously thinking about which biases might lead to flawed decision-making. Stanford social psychologist Jennifer Eberhardt. During a lecture at Stanford in April, while standing under an image of Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old who was shot and killed by police in her hometown of Cleveland, Eberhardt made explicit the connection between her research and the events roiling the nation. Acknowledgments: First off, thanks to Josh Cavalier for the reviews and advice, and to Linda Bump Harrison, Jennifer Eberhardt, and everyone else at New Riders for the opportunity to work on such a wonderful book. Sam Scott is a senior writer at Stanford. In the end, she stood in front of the class and chose the answer she knew more about, Alabama and Georgia, to the laughter of her classmates. In addition, proactive steps can be taken to implement policies and procedures that can remove or minimize systemic processes that inadvertently or inherently are affected by implicit bias. ", While other scientists have also made major advances in implicit bias research, it is Eberhardt who brought the science to police, says Fridell, who now heads her own business, which has trained law enforcement officers across the United States and Canada to recognize and mitigate their biases. Opens in new window. 9. She attends staff meetings, gives feedback, tracks data and provides training. When musicians started auditioning behind a curtain, the fact that evaluators could no longer see who was playing neutralized any potential for gender bias. . The defendants' photographs were independently rated according to how stereotypically black they appeared. Neither was Africa, the other response that was twirling in her head. Another important step in mitigating implicit bias inside an organization is through teaching your colleagues about the different biases that exist. Her research has shown that police—black and white officers alike—are more likely to mistakenly identify black faces as criminal than white faces; that people show greater support for life sentences for juveniles when they read about a case involving a black defendant than when the case involves a white defendant; and that words associated with crime can cause people to instinctively focus on black faces. That awareness enables incremental change. By Jennifer L. Eberhardt. In 2004, with her reputation yet to be widely established, she organized an unprecedented conference at Stanford on racial bias in policing, bringing together scores of academics from across the country with law enforcement officials from 34 agencies in 13 states. Jennifer L. Eberhardt 1, Paul G. Davies 2, Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns 3, Sheri Lynn Johnson 4 1 Department of Psychology, Stanford University 2 Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles When Eberhardt was in seventh grade, for example, soon after the move, her teacher asked the class to share their families' immigration stories. . Inasmuch as the word “bias” suggests a negative connotation, efforts to raise awareness can be difficult since people do not like to think of themselves as “flawed.” Yet if your colleagues are aware that implicit bias exists and are aware of how it can significantly impact their decision-making, they can be better prepared to mitigate the impact. "She was looking for a way to show elegantly the real consequences for people, [and] to show it in a way that would wake people up to the fact that, when you're the target of these stereotypes, it can be harmful, if not life-threatening," Markus says. Lorie Fridell, then head of research for a law enforcement policy group in Washington, D.C., says Eberhardt's research helped her resolve a nagging paradox. The half of defendants rated as the most stereotypically black were more than twice as likely to have received a death sentence as those in the other half. Yet her signature remains the same: unsettling research revealing the long, pernicious reach of unconscious racial bias, and an unrelenting commitment to share her findings with the outside world. by a team of Stanford University social psychologists led by Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt. © 2021 - Chief Learning Officer - CLO Media. When people are looking over potential applicants, some data suggests that when resumes come in, the people hiring look at it for six seconds on average. "No one wanted to personalize what was so easy to condemn in the abstract.". That realization led her to shift more of her energies from delineating the problem to finding solutions. "She made it possible for other folks to come after her.". A picture of post-racial America it is not. Approximately 25 percent of the state prison population at the time was black. How much demographic information should be requested on the application? One study led by Jennifer Eberhardt, PhD, professor of psychology at Stanford University, reviewed body camera footage and found that police officers in Oakland, California, treated Black people with less respect than whites (Voigt, R., et al., PNAS, Vol. Her own family's escape had been from the Jim Crow South. Eberhardt shows us how we can be vulnerable to bias but not doomed to live under its grip. Twitter - share an article. The conclusion seemed perverse: Someone seeking to mitigate racial disparities in sentencing might be best served by not pointing them out. Leaders who acknowledge that they are just as susceptible to implicit biases as anyone are capable of creating a culture where employees can contemplate the possibilities of flawed decision-making induced by stereotypical associations as opposed to compounding their mistakes by sticking to decisions and systems that reinforce erroneous implicit associations and stereotypes. If you were to look at the hiring or learning and development selection processes, do you have a system where certain information about the candidates is hidden from the evaluators so as not to allow implicit biases to influence the decision-making process? Perspective-taking “can be very useful in assessing the emotional impact on individuals who are constantly being stereotyped in negative ways.”, The challenge in pursuing these strategies lies within each individual in your organization. Dr. Eberhardt begins with seemingly simple questions re- lated to various research methodologies, including neuroscience, social psychology, and well-established aptitude testing.16It is Socioeconomic Bias in the Judiciary, 61 CLEV. The talent evaluators mitigated their unconscious biases even further by asking musicians to remove their shoes before walking onto the stage behind the curtain because the process could be influenced by the sounds of heels walking across the stage. Facebook - share an article. This is the third and final article in a series exploring implicit bias by CLO contributor Michael Bret Hood. The first time Jennifer Eberhardt presented her research at a law enforcement conference, she braced for a cold shoulder. But Alabama and Georgia were clearly not countries. Self-awareness and accountability are crucial in overcoming implicit bias in the workplace. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Not everyone buys the idea of racial bias being an unconscious problem, Magnus says; some believe it should be viewed as a more deliberate form of discrimination. The old racist trope had seemingly died out, a small sign of progress, but the experiments suggested the connection was still robust. After blind auditions were implemented, the odds of a woman earning a position in the orchestra increased by 50 percent. One part of the six-part study showed that in the same way that subjects identified images of guns more quickly when unconsciously primed with black faces, so could they pick out apes much sooner. "All over this country, black people are still finding themselves in situations where they feel the state does not fully protect them, where they feel the state does not fully register their pain," she said. She began to realize she was feeling a toll, particularly after research for a 2008 paper she published with Goff and two others revealed persistent connections in people's minds between black people and apes. "She . The assignment will involve answering questions that challenge you to assess how this project applied a social psychological approach to address a practical concern. 618 Okonofua, Eberhardt Typically, stereotyping researchers conduct cross-sec- tional, laboratory studies that require participants to offer a judgment about a given target who is … Eberhardt has been heavily involved with the Oakland Police Department—to the point that she's almost embedded, says Assistant Police Chief Paul Figueroa. Sometimes it means asking ourselves whether our opinions would be the same if the person were a different race, gender, or religion or dressed in a different manner.”. "She has really helped advance the discussions and put it in the framework of science, which takes a lot of the emotion out of it.". You want to slow people down so they don’t fall back on automatic associations and act without thinking things through.”. All rights reserved. Biased: Uncovering the hidden prejudice that shapes what we see, think and do. But Eberhardt has helped move the field's focus from the people with biased attitudes to the people targeted by those biases, and she has found ingeniously simple but powerful ways to make the problems with stereotyping apparent. Such scrutiny can be uncomfortable, Figueroa says, but it's worth the investment in the future. Jennifer Eberhardt, a professor of psychology at Stanford University, suggests slowing down your thinking processes as a method to mitigate implicit bias: “There are lots of things we have at our disposal to manage the potential for bias, and one of … Traditionally, musicians who were trying out for positions would come onto a stage and play in front of the talent evaluators. Rather than follow a suspect into a backyard, Figueroa says, officers are now supposed to wait for backup, reducing the chances of a high-adrenaline confrontation in which biases can surface unchecked. In the experiment, students looking at a screen were exposed to a subliminal flurry of black or white faces. By taking your time and deploying System 2 to generate new perspectives, practice consequential reflection, learn more about implicit biases, and fundamentally accept that you are flawed, you, as a learning leader, can create a more diverse organization and culture where people are allowed to thrive even when we look, behave, and act differently than others. Stanford University 2. (He would go off to a private school for middle and high school; the two later remet at Harvard. JENNIFER EBERHARDT: Well, I mean, I think—when we’ve done studies, we’ve asked people to rate faces, say, on how stereotypically black they … Jennifer has 4 jobs listed on their profile. The other kids seemed to think she was joking. By engaging in consequential reflection, learning leaders can engage System 2, more deliberate thinking, and consider not only the direct impact of the decision to be made, but also the ripples that will affect the careers of those who are passed over. According to Michael Levine of Psychology Today, rationality only represents about 20 percent of human decision-making. “The human brain is a wonderful gift, but with success and tenure we are fooled into certainty and drawn away from humility,” writes Forbes contributor Michael Brainard. Yet she also offers us tools to address it. T he first time Jennifer Eberhardt presented her research at a law enforcement conference, she braced for a cold shoulder. "I think she has changed the way we all think about the American dilemma of race.". After ending the awkward discussion, she turned to the reading of the week on unconscious racism, which reignited discussion, with students decrying such behavior. Students entered Stanford on the application her research at a screen were exposed to a private for... Asked to identify blurry images as they came into focus frame by frame see, and! Her. `` opportunities with candidates ’ knowledge, skills, and criminal justice system. `` made bad! 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